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如何加快和扩大新时代教育对外开放——《中国教育报》专访ag贵宾厅校长徐小洲
来源单位: 中国教育报发布时间: 2019-06-28

ag贵宾厅2018nian4yue,zailatuoweiyashoudoulijia,yimingxiaonvhaizai“hanyuqiao”zhongwenbisaizhongyanchangzhongguogequ。xinhuashefa(ziliaotupian)

访谈嘉宾

徐小洲浙江传媒学院院长

卢晓中ag贵宾厅华南师范大学粤港澳大湾区教育发展高等研究院院长

沈 伟华东师范大学国际与比较教育研究所副教授

刘宝存北京师范大学国际与比较教育研究院院长、教授

阚 阅浙江大学教育学院副院长、浙江大学区域协调发展研究中心研究员

王晓宁中国教育科学研究院国际与比较教育研究所副研究员

ag贵宾厅riqian,《jiaoyubudengbabumenagguibintingjiakuaihekuodaxinshidaijiaoyuduiwaikaifangdeyijian》(yixiajiancheng《yijian》)zhengshiyinfa,duixinshidaijiaoyuduiwaikaifangjinxinglezhongdianbushu。woguojiaoyuduiwaikaifangyounaxiejidaijiaqianghegaijindefangmian?ruhejiakuaipeiyangjuyouquanqiujingzhenglideguojihuarencai?ruhetuidongjiaoyuduiwaikaifanggaozhiliangneihanshifazhan?yiqingbeijingxiaruheyingnanershang、xiangguojishehuigongxianjiaoyuzhilidezhongguofangan?zhongguojiaoyubaojizhejiucicaifangduoweizhuanjia。

新形势下为何要加快和扩大教育对外开放?

记者: 我国教育对外开放的现状如何,又有哪些亟待加强和改进的方面?

沈伟: 我国教育对外开放是个逐步推进的过程,先后经历了留学教育为先导,高等教育与文化交流为主,进而扩展到整个教育体系对外开放的历程。如今我国已成为世界最大留学生输出国和亚洲最大留学目的国;基础教育的优秀经验正在“走出去”;截至2020年6月,我国已在162个国家和地区设立541所孔子学院和1170个孔子课堂,中国语言文化影响力不断增强;我国与国际组织、区域组织在文化、教育方面的互动日益频繁,在国际秩序、规则制定中的影响力日甚。

ag贵宾厅woguojiaoyuduiwaikaifangdechengdubuduantigao,danwoguogaodengjiaoyudeguojihuayuquanhejingzhenglirengyoudaitigao;laihualiuxuerenshuwenbuzengjia,danshengyuanjiegoupianyazhouhua;jieshouxuelijiaoyudeliuxueshengrenshuwenbushangsheng,dandiqufenbubujunheng,qieputonggaoxiao、gaozhixuexiaodeyuyanleiliuxueshengbilijugaobuxia;jiaoshijiaoliurenshuyucengcizhujiantigao,danxueshuyanjiugongtongtijianshebuzu;zhongwaihezuodefanchoubianguang,danzhiliangbaozhangyuhuayuzhudaorengyoudaijiaqiang。

记者: 党的十九大报告提出,要推动形成全面开放新格局。在构建全面开放新格局中,教育对外开放具有什么样的地位和作用?

徐小洲: ag贵宾厅教育对外开放在这当中具有不可替代的作用。习近平总书记在致全国留学工作会议贺信中指出,教育对外开放要培养造就更多优秀的人才,努力开创留学工作新局面,为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标,以及实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦作出新的更大的贡献。

jiaoyuduiwaikaifangshishijiexianjinwenhuaxishouyuzhonghuayouxiuwenhuachuanbodepaitoubing。duoyuanwenhuachongtuyujiaorongshidangjinshijiewenmingmianlindegongtongwenti,xuyaoyibaorongsiweishixianrenleixianjinwenhuagongxiang。jiaoyushiwenhuachuanbodezhuzhendi,shibutongguojia、butongwenhuaderenmenjinxingwenmingduihuahelijiedejiaohuidi。dangqian,woguoyaoyi“yidaiyilu”weizhongdian,chixutuijintongshijiegeguodewenhuajiaoliuyuhezuo,chuanbozhonghuayouxiuchuantongwenhuahedangdaizhongguofazhandelilunyushijianjingyan。

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jiaoyuduiwaikaifangyeshigoujianrenleimingyungongtongtidezhongyaoqiaoliang。muqian,woguoguangfangoujianqijiaoyuhezuojiaoliupingtai,yu188geguojiahediqujianlijiaoyujiaoliuhezuoguanxi。jinruxindelishishiqi,jinguanwoguojiangpengdaogezhongxindekunnanyutiaozhan,danwoguobixuyongganzoujinguojijiaoyuwutaizhongxin,jiaqiangyuguojizuzhihegeguojiaoyujigoudehezuoyujiaoliu,jijizhudongcanyuquanqiujiaoyuzhili,weigoujianquanqiujiaoyugongtongtigongxianzhongguofanganhezhongguozhihui。

如何推动教育对外开放实现高质量内涵式发展?

记者: 如何从整体上把握新时代教育对外开放的工作原则?

徐小洲: ag贵宾厅首先,新时代的教育对外开放要坚持健康、有序开放。教育总是有目的的选择性行为,我国教育对外开放必须铭记为中华民族伟大复兴与为人的全面发展服务,促进教育理念、教育体系、教育类型、教育对象等双向、高效、有序开放。在教育交流中,ag贵宾厅要妥善处理好两种关系: 一方面,在引进外国教育资源时要善于取其精华,去其糟粕,避免不良的文化影响与政治渗透;另一方面,在教育资源“走出去”时,要善于传播中国优秀文化,营造包容、开放、多元的教育开放氛围,增强不同文化之间的认知、沟通、理解,形成合作、互助、信任的文化共识。

qici,xinshidaidejiaoyuduiwaikaifangyaotishengkaifangnengji。genjuquanmiankaifangdezhengtibuju,dalituidongjiaoyuxitongquanfangweikaifang,xingchengjiaoyuduiwaikaifangdezhengtiheli。weici,jiaoyuduiwaikaifangyaoyugoujianrenleimingyungongtongtitongxiangfali,zhongshidingcengsheji、xitongmouhua、fenbufazhan,zaigaozhiliang、youjiegou、kechixuzhongzouchuwoguojiaoyuduiwaikaifangdexinluzi。

zaiqici,xinshidaidejiaoyuduiwaikaifangyaoshouzhuanquandixian。agguibintingyaojianliguojiajiaoyuduiwaikaifangzhilitixi,wanshanjianduguanlijiagouhezhengcefagui,jiaqiangjiaoyuduiwaikaifangfengxianfangkongcuoshi,quebaojiaoyuduiwaikaifangxingwenzhiyuan,hanweiguojiazhengzhianquanhejiaoyuzhuquan。

记者: ag贵宾厅结合刚刚谈到的问题和《意见》的部署,我国教育对外开放如何从量的增加转向质的提升,走内涵式发展的道路?

沈伟: 内涵式的教育对外开放意味着遵循教育合作与交流的规律,根据国际关系的动态发展与本国教育引进、输出的现实需要,发挥教育促进文化交流、人才培养、推动和平发展的潜能。为实现教育对外开放的高水平、可持续发展,可采取如下策略:

youhuachuguoliuxuedegongzuobuju,cujinjiaoyuduiwaikaifangneihanshifazhan。dangjinshijiejingjizengzhangdongnengbuzu,bufenguojiamaoyibaohuzhuyitaitou,quyuchongtu、kongbuzhuyi、wangluoanquandengwentipinpinbaofa。suizhexinguanyiqingzaiquanqiudemanyan,shijiedebuqueding、buwendingxingjinyibuzengqiang,jianjieyingxiangleliuxuehuanjingheliuxueyiyuan。cengweiwoguoliuxueshengshouxuandidebeimei,yichuxianrenshuzengzhangfalideshitou。guyinggenjuguojiguanxidedongtaifazhan,helibujuchuguoliuxue,weirencaipeiyanggoujiananquan、lianghaodefenwei。jinyibutuidongdongya、“yidaiyilu”dengjiaoyugongtongtijianshe,jiakuaijiaoyutizhihutonghexueli、xuefenhuren,weiliuxueshengtigonggengweibianli、linghuodeliuxuetiaojian。

youxutuijinjiaoyuzaidiguojihua,xitongtishengjiaoyuduiwaikaifangdezhiliang。jiezhi2020nian6yue,woguodezhongwaihezuobanxuejigouhexiangmuda2282ge,qizhongbenkeyishangjigouhexiangmugong1196ge。woguojudulifarenzigedezhongwaihezuobanxuededaxue10suo,feidulifarenzhongwaihezuobanxuejigou121jia。yucitongshi,woguoyuelaiyueduodegongbanxuexiao、minbanxuexiao,weixueshengtigongduoyanghuadexuanze。zheixiexuexiao、xiangmu、jigouweiwoguojichujiaoyu、gaodengjiaoyuzaidiguojihuatigonglejichuyujingyan。woguokeyoujihuadijianlijiaoyuduiwaikaifangshiyanqu、shifanqudeng,zaishiyanqunei,tansuoguojihuarencaipeiyangdedazhongxiaoxuexianjiejizhi,peiyangdapijuyouguojishiye、tongxiaoguojiguize、nenggoucanyuguojishiwuyuguojijingzhengdeguojihuarencai。zaishifanqunei,ninglianyiliuxuekeduiwaikaifangdejingyan,jiangshuzhongguogushidetongshixingchengquyujingyanfushe。

ag贵宾厅tuozhangaojibierenwenjiaoliujizhi,shenhuakuaguokejihezuochuangxin。genjushijiezhishichanquanzuzhiquanqiuchuangxinzhishupaiming,zhongguoyou2018niandedi17weishangshengdao2019niandedi14wei,qierengshizhongdengshourujingjitizhongweiyijinruqian30mingdeguojia,biaoxianchujudadeshangshengqianli。muqian,zhongguoyiyuchuangxinzhishubiaoxianlianghaodeyiselie、fenlan、ruishidengguojianlilechuangxinhuobanguanxijiqixiangguanpingtai,kezaiyiyoudegaojibierenwenjiaoliujizhishang,xietonggaoxiao、yanjiujigou、qiye、zhengfudeliliang,miaozhunshijiekejiqianyan,tongguo“chanxueyanyongjiehedeguojihezuolianheshiyanshi”dengjizhishenhuaguojikeyanhezuo,tuidongjishuchuangxinyuzhuanhua。

fengfuguojihezuoxingshi,yiwangluohua、zhinenghuatuidongyouzhijiaoyuziyuandegongxiang,tigaoliuxuejiaoyudezhiliang。lianheguojiaokewenzuzhizai2019niandedahuishang,tongguoleyitaoyouxiaofalvhejishuguifandebiaozhun,cujinkaifangjiaoyuziyuanzaiguojijiangongxiang。woguokejijicanyudaogongxiangziyuandejianshezhong,bingtongguorenzhengyinjinduoleizaixianjiaoyupingtai,jiezhuzhinengbanxuexitongluoshi“fanzaidaxue”,tongguozishiyingjishuzhichiliuxueshengdegexinghuaxuexi,tongguokuozhanxianshitigaojiaoxuexiaoneng,bingyicidaidongwoguozhongxibudiquguojijiaoyudezhiliangtisheng。

如何加快培养具有全球竞争力的国际化人才?

记者: 《意见》着眼培养更具全球竞争力的人才,对各级各类教育的对外开放作出了相应安排。您认为,何谓具有全球竞争力的国际化人才?

刘宝存: 首先,应该掌握相关专业领域的基础理论、学科前沿知识和专业技能。其次,应该在知识、技能、情感、态度和价值观等方面的发展处于国际最高水平,能够在各自的学科和行业与国际同行进行对话、合作与竞争。再其次,应该掌握多种语言,熟悉世界不同文化,通晓国际规则,具有全球视野和跨文化交流能力,能够参与国际事务和国际竞争。这个人才队伍应当包括具有全球竞争力的学术型人才、应用型人才、技能型人才。只有各级各类教育协同培养,才能真正实现培养具有全球竞争力的国际化人才的目标。

zheishiyixiangzhuoyuegongcheng。tabudanyaoqiuwoguoderencaipeiyangduibiaowoguoshehuijingjifazhandexinyaoqiu,zairencaipeiyangmubiao、zhuanyeyukechengshezhi、jiaoxuemoshiyufangfa、zhiliangjiankongyupingjiadengfangmianjinxingquanmiandegaige,tishengjiaoyufuwushehuijingjifazhandenengli,erqieyaoqiuwoguoderencaipeiyangduibiaoshijieyiliushuiping,zhidingshijieyiliudezhiliangbiaozhun,dazaoshijieyiliudejiaoyutixi,tansuoshijieyiliuderencaipeiyangmoshi。

记者: 具体到培养更具全球竞争力的国际化人才的改革措施,您有哪些建议?

刘宝存: ag贵宾厅一是加强中小学的外语教育改革,扩大中小学外语教育语种范围,加强我国周边地区通用语言的教育。鼓励我国与“一带一路”沿线国家毗邻的省市及区域,以选修课的形式开展周边国家通用语言的教育。

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sanshigenju“yidaiyilu”yanxianguojiayuyanduoyangxingdetedian,dalipeiyangfeitongyongyurencai。kexueguihuafeitongyongyuzhuanyefenbu,tuchuguanjianyuzhongrencaipeiyang。yizhengce、zhidudengxingshizengjiatouru,kuodafeitongyongyurencaipeiyangguimo。yizhidubaozhangfeitongyongyurencaipeiyangzhengcedezhangqixinghewendingxing。chuangxinfeitongyongyurencaiduoyuanhuapeiyangmoshi,shelifeitongyongyuhaiwaiduanqijinxiuxiangmu,zhichifeitongyongyurencaidaohaiwaigongdugaoyijixuewei,qianghuayanjiushengjiaoyujieduandefeitongyongyurencaipeiyang,jiaqiangfeitongyongyujiaoshiduiwujianshe。

ag贵宾厅sishijiaqiang“yidaiyilu”jianshejixudezhengzhi、jingji、wenhua、falv、minzu、zongjiaodengzhuduolingyuzhuanyejishujinengrencaipeiyangpeixun,jiaqiangshewaijishugongrenpeixun,zhidinggeleijishugongrenpeixunneirongdeguojiabiaozhun,qianghuazhuanyejinengrencaipeiyangtixi,chuangxinzhuanyejinengrencaipeiyangmoshi。

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qishitongchouguihuachuguoliuxue,chongfenliyongguojiyouzhiziyuanpeiyangguojihuarencai。tongchouguihuaguojia、difangjiangxuejin,jizhonggongpailiuxueziyuanpeiyangguojiajixurencai,tongshiwanshanyouxiuzifeiliuxueshengjiangxuejinzizhuzhengce,jianquanliuxueshengguiguojiuyechuangyeyouhuizhengce,xiyingengduoyouxiuliuxueshenghuiguogongzuo、weiguofuwu。

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如何打造教育对外开放新高地?

记者: ag贵宾厅《意见》提出,在教育对外开放中贯彻全面深化改革的要求,如着力破除体制机制障碍,加大中外合作办学改革力度等。不少专家呼吁,在雄安新区、海南自贸区、粤港澳大湾区等重点建设的区域先行先试,打造教育对外开放新高地。作为粤港澳大湾区教育发展研究者,您怎么看?

卢晓中: 这些重点建设的区域,都应当成为教育对外开放的新高地,有力地撬动整体区域教育改革发展的同时,支撑区域乃至推动全国对外开放。2019年2月18日,中共中央、国务院印发《粤港澳大湾区发展规划纲要》,明确提出“支持大湾区建设国际教育示范区”。2020年6月1日,中共中央、国务院印发了《海南自由贸易港建设总体方案》,将深化教育对外开放作为自贸港建设的重要支撑——允许境外理工农医类高水平大学、职业院校在海南自由贸易港独立办学,设立国际学校。推动国内重点高校引进国外知名院校在海南自由贸易港举办具有独立法人资格的中外合作办学机构。

ag贵宾厅dazaojiaoyuduiwaikaifangxingaodi,kecongsandafangmiannuli。shouxian,zaizhongdianquyuxianxingxianshi,jianliyuguojijieguidekaifangxingjiaoyuxintizhi。yaojianchijiaoyukaifang,wanshanquyujiaoyukaifanghezuotizhijizhi,jijuguojijiaoyuyouzhiziyuan,jianshejuyouguojijingzhenglidejiaoyufazhanquyu。biruyuegangaodawanqu,kechongfenfahuigangaogaoduguojihuadeduteyoushi,caiqulinghuozhengcezhichidawanqujiaoyuhezuobanxue“xianxingxianshi”,cujingeleibanxueyaosuzaidawanqubianjieliudongheyouhuapeizhi。

qici,yifuwugoujianrenleimingyungongtongtiweizongzhiheshiming,dazaoquanqiujiaoyuherencaigaodi。jiaqiangzheixiezhongdianquyuyuoumeifadaguojia、gongjian“yidaiyilu”guojiazhijiandejiaoyuhekeyanjiaoliuhezuo,tuidongzhongdianquyujiaoyuherencaiziyuan“yinjinlai”he“zouchuqu”xiangjiehe。jiadaduiliuxueshengdexiyinli,kuodaliuxueshengguimo。yaoduijieguojiachuangxinqudongfazhanzhanlve,shendurongruzhongdianquyujianshejincheng,goujianguojihuachuangxinrencaipeiyangtixi,nulipeiyangzaojiudapijuyouquanqiushiyeheguojijingzhenglidebajianchuangxinrencai。

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如何向国际社会贡献教育治理中国方案?

记者: ag贵宾厅《意见》提出,积极向国际社会贡献教育治理中国方案,如何有效提升中国在全球教育治理中的参与和贡献?

阚阅: 全球教育治理是指国际体系中以主权国家为核心的各个行为体的共同合作,通过正式的制度和非正式的安排,协调各自利益和政策,以应对全球化时代人类社会所面对的教育发展上的各种跨国和国际挑战,并支持各个国家实现国家治理水平提升的活动。

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如何应对疫情对教育对外开放带来的挑战?

记者: 新冠肺炎疫情对教育对外开放造成了哪些影响?

王晓宁: 首先,教育国际交流合作遭遇短期集中冲击。中国教育对外开放的最前沿如出国留学、来华留学、人才引进、人文交流等诸多方面,因疫情直接影响而遭遇的集中冲击不言而喻。短期来看,疫情导致的全球性经济衰退、国际教育投入下降、国际人员流动锐减、国际政治局势变动等,都是中国教育对外开放的消极变量。在国际疫情倒灌、国内局部反弹的双重风险下,预判和测算上述影响及其规模,预筹应急应对举措,配合大局打好“战疫”下半场无疑是首要命题。

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记者: 面对这些挑战,中国教育对外开放如何行稳致远?

王晓宁: ag贵宾厅一是要预判先机,撬动教育专属红利。全球疫情带来的经济下滑、就业低迷及需求萎缩会迫使劳动力回归或滞留教育培训领域以寻求缓冲与储备,从而促使教育事业,包括教育对外开放领域为之提振。与此同时,国际间教育交流合作恰恰是当前全球化进程遇阻和国际政经局势紧张之下的一个软性缓冲机制,正当大展经纶之时,要及时对相关特殊机遇、专属红利做出预判,承担使命并发挥作用。

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